Boiler condensate water contains carbon dioxide (from the feed water alkalinity) which is corrosive to steel. If left untreated, condensate water can have pH?s of 5.0 to 6.5 which is corrosive to the steel piping in the condensate return lines and adds iron deposits to boilers.
Neutralizing amines are a common steam line treatment that can be fed in a water treatment solution along with other treatment chemicals or it can be fed direct to the steam header. When feeding the amine to the feed water system, it should be fed downstream of the deaerating equipment. The neutralizing amine is volatilized and carried out with the steam in the condensate to react with carbon dioxide. Different amines will stay with the steam (liquid ?vapor distribution ratio) until it drops out of the steam and it is based on this ratio that we say whether an amine has a short run, medium run, or long run distribution. Many times amines are blended to provide a complete protection package (and we have many blends such as B-4524, IRO chelating B-4551, or B-4556 to name a few).
The four most common neutralizing amines (or amine blends) are ammonia, cyclohexylamine, diethylaminoethanol, and morpholine. Neutralizing amines are fed to maintain a pH of 8.2 to 8.6; however, in difficult to control systems a wider pH value of 7.6 to 8.6 may have to be used.
Ammonia (our B-4501) is used in steam lines where the steam contains a large amount of carbon dioxide or where there is an appreciable amount of steam loss from the condensate system. The advantage of ammonia is that the relative cost is less than other amines. The disadvantage is that it cannot be used in systems containing copper or nickel.
Cyclohexylamine (our B-4564 series of products) has been used primarily for low pressure systems (50 down to 5 psi) and also for systems with long condensate runs.
Diethylaminoethanol (our B-4522 and B-4523) also called DEAE is versatile in that the distribution ratio is between that of cyclohexylamine and morpholine making it a very good medium run amine, effective in many industrial condensate systems. The disadvantage is that DEAE is not very effective in low pressure systems.
Morpholine (used in several blends such as B-4552 series and B-4545) has a low distribution ratio and is commonly blended with other amines. The short distribution ratio makes morpholine effective on short run systems and also for the protection of steam turbines.
Amines are a major component of a complete water treatment program for boilers.
If you?re in the market for water pre-treatment, you know that cutting corners simply won?t work. With so many legal stipulations pertaining to water quality, finding a cut-rate solution simply isn?t in the cards; the government will bite you hard if you try. At the same time, accepting any answer without shopping properly for the best solution is also bad business. What you need is an optimal solution that is both profitable and legal.
In order to realize this balance, you need a water technology company that takes into account all the aspects of the apparatus supporting the inflow and outflow of water for your business or institution. It?s not enough to simply have a chemical expert examine your water for IRO chelating variations at different points in your production line; you also need an engineer?s eye to go over your production site to ensure that the production apparatus will support the best possible water pre-treatment process. If both your chemical solutions and apparatus solutions are set up together ideally, then you?ve got an optimized production line.
If you?re in Etobicoke, Ontario or in the surrounding area and in search of an optimal water pre-treatment solution, we at Ion Water Solutions can help. Our expertise is in both the fields of chemistry and engineering. This, combined with our enthusiastic expertise in water technology, allows us to provide you with the best opportunity to optimize your water pre-treatment system. Call us for a free survey so we can offer answers customized to your site.
In seeking the best contender among water technology companies, it?s helpful to consider the range of the field in question. A company specializing in water technology can be very helpful in streamlining the costs and productions of a business that relies on processing water. It could be argued that delving into this industry almost guarantees a lot of money is at stake, and there is plenty to lose if a bad decision is carried forward.
Water technology companies that don?t take your apparatus into account are not offering you a full range of possibilities with regard to your ideal system. Some companies may specialize in filters while other specialize in resins and from there they will try to provide you with an acceptable solution. However, this not an answer that takes everything into account. Some changes to the apparatus may improve how everything flows while being cost-effective. This is an aspect to water technology which should interest anyone seeking water solutions that work better and save money.
If you?re searching among water technology companies for a project in Etobicoke, Ontario or the surrounding areas, think of us at Ion Water Solutions. We pride ourselves on offering a holistic approach to water solutions, taking into account the water and the apparatus as well. With our backgrounds in chemistry and engineering, we offer an opportunity for Organophosphine Chelating agent a business or institution that?s looking for water solutions. A free survey is available for those that want their water optimization to be comprehensive, so call us today.
Chelating agents can be used in a great variety of applications and the potential for innovation of chemical additives is far from being exhausted. The market research institute Ceresana Research forecasts the global chelating agents market to reach more than 5 million tonnes in 2018. In 2010, the Asia-Pacific region was the largest outlet, generating about 45% of worldwide demand for chelating agents. The region was followed by Western Europe and North America.
Growth Driver Asia-Pacific
Most demand for IRO chelating agents is generated by the cleaners and detergents market. ?Especially chelating agent manufacturers will benefit from strong growth in demand for modern cleaners & detergents in Asia-Pacific and South America,?? explains Oliver Kutsch, managing director of Ceresana. The most comprehensive market report worldwide examines how demand for chelating agents will develop in the individual application areas. In addition, the study highlights opportunities offered by new innovative products.
Ceresana expects the cleaners & detergents market ? the largest application area for chelating agents ? to see moderate growth. Pulp production will especially increase in the Asia-Pacific region. The pulp industry was the second-largest outlet for chelating agents as soon as in 2010. Chelating agents are used in the production of bleached pulp and the deinking of recycled papers.
Innovation and Eco-Friendliness
The use of innovative chelating agents is also growing in other application areas, such as process water treatment or agricultural technology. Here, particularly the demand for biodegradable chelating agents has been increasing during past years. Some reasons for this are ecological concerns because of the bioaccumulation of chelating agents and the resulting consequences for humans and environment.
Apart from becoming more environmentally friendly, modern chelating agents are becoming increasingly efficient and easier to use. The current report provides profiles of manufacturers of such new and modified chelating agents.
Since the markets in Western Europe and North America are already very saturated, they will register sluggish growth in the coming years. Market trends in these regions will be characterized by substitutions and the introduction of chelating agents into new application areas. In the remaining world regions, almost all application areas offer great potential for growth.
?Producers and users of chelating agents will have to follow the trend of replacing conventional chelating agents by new environmentally friendly ones ? also outside of Western Europe and North America,?? forecasts Oliver Kutsch. The study explains how legislative changes and growing environmental awareness will impact the market.
Manipulation of European Union Emissions Trading system (EU ETS) by the buy, bank, burn program compensates unregulated emissions while regulated sectors carry a large part of the burden. This distorts the balance between regulated firms and non-regulated projects, so parties outside the EU ETS can be virtuous at the cost of others. Environmental economists Reyer Gerlagh and Roweno Heijmans of the Tilburg School of Economics & Management discovered a leak in the system.
The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is an important system to reduce CO2 emissions in the Netherlands and Europe in order to achieve the climate targets (zero emissions by 2060). But is it effective? And can we, citizens, consumers, contribute? Yes, indeed. However, the system is leaking, the authors discovered. Their findings were recently published in Nature Climate Change.
Large companies must buy emission rights for each ton of CO2 they emit. Without these permits they are not allowed to emit CO2, otherwise they will be severely punished with high fines. Companies can buy, sell and burn the rights, but also may save them for later ('bank'). In the Netherlands the Dutch Emissions Authority (NEa) is responsible for compliance and punishment.
Regulation within ETS
EU ETS, the flagship of European climate policy, regulates the greenhouse gas emissions of some 11,000 companies, together accounting for 45 percent of Europe's emissions. Approximately 450 companies in the Netherlands fall under the ETS regime, of which 20 percent is responsible for 90 percent of total Dutch CO2 emissions covered by EU-ETS. We are talking about large, energy-intensive companies in the electricity sector, refining industry, chemical industry and the metal sector, such as Shell, Exxon, Tata Steel, Dow Benelux, IRO chelating Akzo and Chemelot.
Purchase outside ETS
Emission rights can also be purchased, sold and banked by governments, non-governmental organizations and consumers from outside the ETS. Unregulated sectors include agriculture, road transport and aviation to destinations outside the European Economic Area. Reducing emissions by non-ETS parties can come about in two ways: (1) abatement outside ETS through emission reduction projects, for example, reducing highway speed limits or substituting bikes for cars; and (2) abatement through the ETS by buying allowances from it and annihilating them, a practice we call 'buy and burn." There are various private initiatives outside the ETS that intervene in the ETS: such as Carbonkiller in the Netherlands, Sandbag in the UK and The Compensators in Germany.
Carbonkiller allows everyone to buy and destroy CO2 emission allowances from the EU ETS. The corresponding CO2 can therefore no longer be emitted by the industry. The less of these permits in circulation, the lower the total possible emissions of EU super polluters and the greater the incentive to innovate.
National climate policy
The total emissions of all EU countries until 2030 are fixed (after 2030 they are not yet legally ratified), with the number of allowances issued decreasing every year until they are zero, somewhere between 2050 and 2060. However, emissions move through time and space. Policy in one member state (i.e. the Netherlands) to limit emissions within its own borders can be frustrated by higher emissions in other member states and/or years. National climate policy will then lead to a fall in demand and the price of emission rights, but not in reduction of CO2 emissions. National climate policy can therefore be ineffective due to the ETS. The so-called carbon leakage. Reason why the Market Stability Reserve (MSR) was established. The MSR enables the EU to withdraw emission allowances from the market. Problem tackled, you think.
Emissions succeeded. Mission failed
But here's a catch, according to environmental economists Gerlagh and Heijmans of Tilburg University. When parties from outside the ETS buy allowances from the ETS (e.g. because the CO2 price is cheaper), the effect is an increase in the demand for emission allowances. This leads to a decrease of the 'bank," which also causes the MSR to shrink. The system then responds by distributing more allowances to the market. Some of the depreciated allowances are then returned to the system.
The authors calculated that if an individual buys and burries 1 ton of allowances, the total emissions in the EU ETS might fall by 2/5 tons. The effectiveness of "buy and bury" has thus been reduced by 60 percent. That would mean robbing Peter to pay Paul. Emissions succeeded. Mission failed.
But it could also be done the other way around, according to Gerlagh and Heijmans. The system can be manipulated and exploited by outsiders because it is not mandatory to write off allowances purchased today immediately. Purchased emission rights may be held in stock ('bank') for some time, to be destroyed ('burn') later. The effect is that both the 'stock' and the MSR increase, which in turn leads to a decrease in the future amount of allowances. In this case the purchase of 1 ton of emission rights leads to a total reduction in emissions of 5/3 tons. Looks pretty good, but parties within ETS pay the bill. From the 5/3 tons emission reduction, only 1 ton was purchased by parties outside the ETS. The remaining 2/3 tons of reductions are entirely paid for by regulated industries. Smart free-driving allows unregulated agents to impose part of the private abatement costs on regulated bodies: climate-conscious consumers can be virtuous at the cost of others.
The findings by Gerlagh and Heijmans were recently published in Nature Climate Change. The authors recommend that, when reforming the EU ETS, it would be a good idea to uncover this 'leak' that frustrates the intended CO2 reduction.
The Tilburg scientists went to the Dutch Emissions Authority (NEa) and the EU to discuss the effects of the 'leak' on the Dutch climate agreement. Calculations show that domestic climate policy is effective on the short run, but may lead to more emissions if policy is focused on the long run: a green paradox.
Can the leak be closed? For the time being, there is no answer to this question. Until recently, no one was aware of this leak. The authors expect that it will take some time before the topic will be put on the agenda.
Synthesis of helical ladder polymers Report: An efficient synthesis of optically active ladder-type molecules and polymers through intramolecular cyclization of chiral triptycenes containing bis[2-(4-alkoxyphenyl)ethynyl]phenylene units. The electrophile-induced cyclization reactions are directed away from the bridgehead carbon atoms of triptycene by steric factors, thereby producing one-handed twisted ladder units without any detectable byproducts. Moreover, the quantitative and regioselective nature of this intramolecular cyclization allowed us to synthesize optically active ladder polymers with a well-defined one-handed helical geometry in which homoconjugated dibenzo[a,h]anthracene units are helically arranged along the main chain. This synthesis route enables the construction of a variety of nanoscale helical ladder architectures and provides an entry into new chiroptical materials.
Researchers at Kanazawa University synthesized helical ladder polymers with a well-defined cyclic repeating unit and one-handed helical geometry, as they reported in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.
Ladder polymers?molecules made of adjacent rings sharing two or more atoms?are challenging to synthesize, because they require highly selective, quantitative reactions to avoid the formation of branching structures or of interruptions in the ring sequence in the polymer chain. Moreover, most existing strategies for the synthesis of ladder polymers suffer from severe limitations in terms of selectivity and quantitativity. Another important type of molecules are molecules with a helical structure (such as DNA and proteins), which play an important role in molecular recognition and catalysis. Thus, the fabrication of molecules that possess both a ladder and a helical structure could open up new applications of polymeric materials.
Tomoyuki Ikai, Timothy M. Swager and colleagues from an international collaboration started from triptycene, an aromatic hydrocarbon that is an achiral molecule, but from which chiral derivatives can be obtained by introducing substituents in the benzene rings in an asymmetric manner. Optically active triptycenes have practical uses as chiral materials, for example for chiral separation and circularly polarized luminescent materials. The researchers then used the chiral triptycenes as a framework to efficiently form single-handed helical ladder polymers using electrophilic aromatic substitution. Steric repulsion in the system resulted in the formation of one-handed twisted ladder units. The reactions were quantitative and regioselective (that is, there is a preferred direction of chemical bonding), which enabled the synthesis of optically active ladder polymers with well-defined helical geometry. No byproducts were detected.
Several techniques, including spectroscopy and microscopy techniques, were used to characterize the reaction products during synthesis, and molecular dynamics simulations were employed to understand IRO chelating the structure of the resulting molecules, confirming the right-handed helical ladder geometry. The researchers also measured the optical activity of the molecules.
The newly reported synthesis route will open up the synthesis of nanoscale helical ladder architectures and optically active chiral materials. "We believe that these ladder polymers, which can fall into a new category of helical polymers, represent a promising class of advanced materials for use as nanochannels for molecular/ion transport, organic electronics, specific reaction fields, and functional hosts through further modification of the backbone and pendant units," commented the authors in the paper.
A chiral system is an asymmetric system that cannot be superimposed on its mirror image (the word comes from the Greek for hands, because hands are a good example of a chiral system). Most biomolecules and molecules used in pharmaceutical compounds are chiral. Two molecules with opposite chirality have the same composition and structure, but mirror shapes, and they have different properties when they interact with other chiral molecules.
Electrophilic aromatic substitution
Electrophilic aromatic substitution is an organic reaction in which one atom attached to an aromatic system is replaced by an atom that is an electron acceptor (an electrophile). It is an important class of reactions, usually involving a benzene ring.
Steric repulsion is an effect that results from repulsive forces kicking in when atoms get too close to each other, so that their electron clouds overlap.